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nd claymore; and Wolfe and Montc●alm were both mortally wounded.Wolfe l●ived long enough to hear the sho▓uts of victory; Montcalm died before the ac▓tual capitulation of Quebec; and L▓ieutenant Macculloch died a pauper in M▓arylebone Workhouse thirty-four years later▓.This capture of Quebec practically meant● the conquest of Canada, which, w●ith Newfoundland, etc., was ceded to G▓reat Britain; and though there were

troubl▓es on the Pennsylvanian frontier, to su●ppress which a regiment of Highlan▓de

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rs was despatched, nothing of real importance▓ occurred till the revolt of the American C●olonies in 1774. More stress

is lai●d on this portion of the army’s story, bec●ause the war was between section●s of the same race, and because much


▓came of it.Great Britain com●menced the American contest tha▓t at first seemed so unequal, under some disadva▓ntages, n

one the less.The r▓esult of a long period of military ina●ctivity was, as it always has been and wil●l be, most materiall


y felt.▓There were few old, or at le●ast veteran, soldiers in the r●anks who had been under fire, and▓ the younger offic

ers were equally ine▓xperienced.This was natural to expect ●after “The cankers of a calm world and a lo▓ng peace,”


but it was at the bottom o▓f both the want of skill with which this● singular war was conducted, a▓nd the want of appreci

ation, at first ●certainly, of how such an enemy as the army▓ of the colonists should be tact●ically met.It was to be a w


ar in which bush-fi●ghting and skirmishing were to be the leadi●ng features, as Braddock’s disa●ster long years before and the def▓eat at Ticonderoga had already conclusive●ly proved.But the British leaders were to ▓learn the fact, they113 might have foreseen, ▓in the “only school fools l▓earn in, that of experience.”● In order to understand t●he reason fo

r the want of uniformity and unio●n in the desultory campaigns that followed each▓ other, a glance at the map ▓is necessary.It will be see▓n there that when hostilities broke out▓, the seat of war was practically ▓cut in two by the Hudson, at the mouth of whic●h was New York; and beyond Alba●ny, up stream, a series of forts guar●ded the line of approach from Cana

da by way of▓ Quebec, Lake Champlain, and Saratoga.Th●is general line, therefore, c▓ut the confederation into two u●nequal parts, and separated the, at▓ first, more resolute New England State▓s from those of the south, who, ag

ain, to b●egin with, were somewhat lukewarm in▓ the national cause.It was the obstinate foll▓y of the British Government, ▓even more than the feeble cond●uct of her warlike operations in A▓merica, that led to the final result?/p>

?Again, the command of the sea gave Great B●ritain the advantage of being ab▓le to transfer her troops to any part ●of the long American coast line,▓ and attack or threaten the hostile ▓levies formed at different parts, but w?/p>

坔ose own power of concentration was hampe●red by bad roads, a sparse population, ▓and the physical difficulties offe●red by the numerous rivers and estuaries.These● latter, on the other hand, were of the hi●ghest value to the

sea power; and it was no▓t till France threw her sword into th▓e scale that the balance of power at sea ▓was equalised and American success became● a certainty.The temporary loss of that● naval supremacy, with all the world● a

gainst us, was the direct cause of the su●rrender at York Town, and the terminat●ion of the struggle.More than all, ●perhaps, this very prolongation of hostilities● strengthened and gave experience● to the colonists, which was

all they w●anted.They had the courage ▓and a cause already.Howe and other E●nglish generals gave them confidence and tra●ined their leaders. Boston was the act●ive centre whence the “disease of ●disagreement” spread.Stout


, hard-he●aded Puritans, whose ancestors had left the moth▓er country for freedom’s sake,114 we●re as little likely to submit to “taxat●ion without representation,” in the latter da▓ys of the eighteenth century, as t●heir forebears had been a hundred year●s before.“Let us be of one heart,” sa▓ys one of them, “and stand fast in the liber●ties wherewith Chris


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